Cytotoxicity and ApoptoticMechanismof 2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate via Genotoxicity and the Mitochondrial-Dependent Intrinsic Caspase Pathway and Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation in Macrophages



The results showed that HEMA induced cell toxicity in RAW264.7 macrophages depending on the concentration. A higher HEMA concentration was associated with a higher level of apoptosis and genotoxicity.Moreover, HEMA induced a concentration-dependent increase in mitochondrial dysfunction and the intrinsic caspase pathway, including the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. HEMA was also found to upregulate intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and to decrease the activity of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase and catalase.


Taken together, the mitochondrial-dependent

intrinsic caspase pathway and intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation were found to mediate HEMA-induced genotoxicity and apoptosis, leading to cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 macrophages